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The Malaysian educational assessment system is moving the assessment process from summative to more holistic formative functions. With this change, there are tendencies that teachers’ current assessment knowledge may become irrelevant or outdated. Assessment knowledge, be it declarative or procedural, is vital for effective teaching and learning as it is the precursor to how teachers conduct their assessment practices in the classroom. However, not all teachers are able to unlearn or relearn their existing knowledge to cater to the newly introduced formative assessment paradigm. Therefore, this study investigated primary science teachers’ knowledge on formative assessment and one of its essential strategies - the process of providing feedback. Five primary science teachers participated in this study. The main source of data came from journals and interview sessions. The data revealed that some of the teachers’ knowledge on assessment and feedback aligned with the principles of formative assessment. These include seeing assessment as a process and feedback given constructively and in a timely manner. However, teachers also espoused knowledge about assessment and feedback that are associated with summative functions. For instance, one teacher said that assessment can be used to keep students alert, and three teachers claimed that the function of feedback is to provide correct answers. Knowledge is developmental and therefore teachers have the potential to upgrade their assessment knowledge if provided with relevant support, guidance and resources. With accurate knowledge on formative assessment, teachers would be able to transform the knowledge into effective formative assessment strategies in the classroom.